Since then, new integration measures have been introduced, the country's accession to the European Union (EU) has brought more open borders, and thousands of temporary seasonal workers have been admitted.
How these conflicting policies are to be reconciled remains an unanswered question.
Dotted with Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, and Polish family names, Vienna's telephone directory is a testimony to immigration's impact on Austria.
Even more indicative of the longstanding presence of immigrants in the country is the fact that most educated Austrians find such names to be unremarkable.
Along with this history of immigration, research bears out the impression that Austria's population has become even more diverse in recent years.
However, people's "residency right" was tied to their municipality of birth, which was obliged to take care of jobless or poverty-stricken citizens.
In total, about 20,000 applications were approved in 19, a majority of them probably submitted by Poles.
However, the reception of Polish refugees was less generous than that of either Hungarians or Czechoslovakian citizens during the two earlier crises; a visa requirement for Poles was quickly introduced in 1981, sharply reducing the number of asylum applications they submitted.
About two million people found temporary shelter in Austria in this period.
Although the majority of them traveled on to other Western states, many were granted asylum and subsequently integrated into Austrian society.